Perceived Association of Religion and Nation, and More Secular Ideology, Can Improve Political Tolerance Amongst the Muslim Majority in Indonesia
Wibisono, S. (University of Queensland), Yustisia, W. (University of Indonesia), Louis, W. (University of Queensland)
The study examines political tolerance amongst Muslims in Indonesia and its association with ideology and identity factors. A survey was completed by 719 Indonesian Muslims (50.5% female, 49.5% male) living in Jakarta. Women were less tolerant than men (r = -.092, p = .014), but controlling for gender, ideology, religious identity, religious fundamentalism and perceived overlap of identities accounted for significant variance, Fch. (4,680) = 21.586, p <.001, R2 ch. = .112. More specifically, greater tolerance politically was associated with more secular ideology, β =.254, p < .001, sr2 = .064, and greater perceived overlap between religious and national identity, β =.171, p < .001, sr2 = .022. However, religious fundamentalism was not uniquely associated with lower political tolerance, β = -.069, p = .091, nor was religious identification, β = .066, p = .135. The proximal factors that promote political tolerance are thus elements of the contested political narratives in Indonesia about the role of religion in politics and the relationship of religion to the nation state,rather than religious identity in general, or even fundamentalism in general.
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Stereotyping and Intergroup Processes