MMM-ICE3: The Latest Revised Multidimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement
Matika, C. M. (University of Auckland), Houkamau, C. A. (University of Auckland), Sibley, C. G. (University of Auckland)
We update the third Multidimensional Model of Māori Identity and Cultural Engagement (MMM-ICE3), refining the overall questionnaire and adding an eighth subscale Whānau Efficacy. The MMM-ICE3 considers the personal experiences and dimensions of identity for Māori (the indigenous peoples of New Zealand). All subscales were internally reliable and Whānau Efficacy predicted unique variation in time spent with whānau and perceived support when adjusting for all other MMM-ICE3 subscale scores. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of a nationwide postal survey for Māori (N = 7019) did not convincingly support the revised eight-factor model assessing Group Membership Evaluation, Cultural Efficacy, Interdependent Self-Concept, Spirituality, Socio-Political Consciousness, Authenticity Beliefs, Perceived Appearance and Whānau Efficacy. The MMM-ICE3 is a public domain, quantitative self-report measure intended for use in statistical models to predict and understand the outcomes and protective functions of different aspects of identity for Māori. Analyses suggest that the MMM-ICE3 may benefit from further fine-tuning.
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Culture and Social Identity